Migraines are chronic headaches that can last from hours up to days. Symptoms can be very intense and quite painful. Symptoms may include light and sound sensitivity, nausea and vomiting.
There is no cure for migraines but medications can help reduce the intensity and frequency.
Treatment of migraines includes various approaches. These include preventative treatments like trigger-avoidance and prescription drugs. Symptom management options include medications such as acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (e.g., aspirin and ibuprofen).
Nearly everyone at some point in their lives suffers from low back pain. It can be acute (short term) or chronic, lasting more than six months.
Symptoms can range from shooting to stabbing pain, muscle aches, limited flexibility, or inability to stand up straight.
Low back pain is usually diagnosed by a physician. Treatment for acute low back pain may range from pain medications, exercise, muscle relaxants to physiotherapy. Treatment options for chronic low back pain are similar to those of acute low back pain and may also include surgery.
Bone pain is a pain felt within the bone. Bone pain is not the same as joint pain (arthritis) or muscle pain.
Symptoms may include aching, tenderness or discomfort within the bone.
It is most commonly associated with an injury to the bone (i.e., fracture) but can also be a result of cancer or infection.
Fibromyalgia is a widespread pain felt throughout the body. The pain includes muscles, tendons and ligaments. Symptoms may also include joint stiffness, fatigue and sleep disturbances. Fibromyalgia is much more common in women (ratio of 4 to 1).
There is no cure for fibromyalgia and treatments aim at symptom management.
These range from pain medications to exercise to complementary and alternative therapies.
Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis and affects 1 in 10 Canadians. It affects the joints in the body, most commonly hands and weight-bearing joints (e.g., hips, knees and feet).
Symptoms may include swelling, stiffness and pain in the joint.
Although there is no cure for osteoarthritis, there are many treatment options. Treatment options include pain medications, anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, exercise, hot/cold treatments, and surgery.
Neuropathic pain is induced by trauma to the primary or central nervous system, which damage its structure and function. It may result from disorders of the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system (e.g., multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke, fibromyalgia, and cancer).
People with neuropathic pain may experience burning, shooting, stabbing, and numbness among other symptoms.
Dealing with chronic neuropathic pain is an ongoing and multi-faceted process. Treatment usually includes pain medications, exercise and complementary and alternative therapies.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory arthritis that causes joint pain and damage. It more commonly appears in women between the ages of 25 and 50.
Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms vary from person to person. At onset it may include flu-like symptoms and periods of joint inflammation (flare-up). During a flare up there may be a swelling, pain, difficulty sleeping, and a fever.
Treatment options include exercise, surgery and medications (e.g., ibuprofen, NSAIDs disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, COX-2 inhibitors, corticosteroids, and biologics).